Photographing into the Abyss with the Laowa Probe Lens

Well, maybe not the abyss, but into a recess….

I needed to document the bolt holes on a wheel that came off the front of a pickup to show whether or not the wheel had been loose on its studs.

After making overall photos of the wheel and tire assembly, I made close-ups of the mounting surface and bolt holes from the back of the wheel. But on the outside of the wheel, the bolt holes were too deeply recessed to use a standard macro lens.

It was important to photograph the lug nut mating surface at the bottom of each recess, but it was nearly impossible both to get light down each recess and to fill the image frame with each hole. I wanted to get sharp, detailed, full frame images of the mating surface—not images cropped from a larger view.

The solution was the unique Laowa Probe lens. (I have previously discussed another unique Laowa super macro lens. I’ve found Laowa lenses to be well made and optically excellent.)

As the photo below shows, the Probe is a 16-inch long tube with a small diameter 24 mm lens surrounded by tiny LED lights at its end. You use a small USB power brick to power those LED lights. Laowa supplies a USB cable with a built-in dimmer switch, but you must supply the power brick. [Click on photo to enlarge, then click on back arrow to return to this post.]

Nikon D850 with Laowa 24mm f/14 2X Macro Probe macro lens made with Nikon Z 7II with Nikon Z 24-70 mm f/2.8 lens and two Profoto B1x studio flashes. f/16, 1/200 sec, ISO 200.

Laowa offers the Probe with several different mounts for many popular DSLR and mirrorless cameras. I used the Nikon F-mount version of the Probe lens on my Nikon D850. Note that all versions of the Probe require manual focusing and exposure; there are no electronic connections between the Probe and any camera.

Fortunately, the lens barrel fit perfectly into the recessed bolt hole, allowing me to get a full frame image of the mounting surface at the bottom. All I had to do was to adjust the intensity of the LEDs, adjust the exposure, and click the shutter. [Click on photo to enlarge, then click on back arrow to return to this post.]

Nikon D850 with Laowa 24mm f/14 2X Macro Probe macro lens made with Nikon Z 7II with Nikon Z 24-70 mm f/2.8 lens and two Profoto B1x studio flashes. f/16, 1/200 sec, ISO 200.

To steady the lens, manually focus, and keep the lens perpendicular to the bottom of the recess, I had the camera mounted on my rolling studio camera stand, which acted like an easily-adjusted tripod on wheels.

As you’ll see, the next two images made with the Probe lens required 0.5 and 0.3 second exposure times, respectively. That range of shutter speeds required that the camera  be secured on a tripod to eliminate camera shake. Raising ISO to get handholdable shutter speeds would introduce noise, reduce detail, and reduce dynamic range. That would defeat the whole purpose of using the Probe to get sharp, detailed full frame images.

The first image I made for each paired hole (the wheel was drilled for two bolt patterns) was to show the bolt hole pair, while concentrating on the appropriate bolt hole. [Click on photo to enlarge, then click on back arrow to return to this post.]

Nikon D850 with Laowa 24mm f/14 2X Macro Probe. f/unrecorded, 0.5 sec, ISO 64.

I then slid the end of the Probe deeper into the recess to fill the frame with details of the mounting surface. [Click on photo to enlarge, then click on back arrow to return to this post.]

Nikon D850 with Laowa 24mm f/14 2X Macro Probe. f/unrecorded, 0.3 sec, ISO 64.

I know of no other way to have attained this image without significant cropping and the inherent loss of detail and resolution.

Although it’s not a lens I use all that often, I’ve found the Probe unmatched for photographing inaccessible labels, fasteners, or other components, too. The built-in LED lights around the lens make it a really useful tool.

If you have (or anticipate) a singular need for it, you can rent one in just a day or two from someone like LensRentals.com at: https://www.lensrentals.com/catalog_search?q=laowa+probe.

Takeaways:

-1- The Laowa Probe (along with the more recent Peri-Probe) lens is a unique, specialized macro lens that can allow you to photograph areas that are otherwise inaccessible.

-2- The Laowa Probe lens allows you to capture all the resolution and detail of full frame images that would be lost with a significant crop.

-3- If you are stymied about how to photograph a challenging subject, you might be able to find a commercially available specialized solution.

-4- While it is preferable to have specialized lenses at your disposal, you can always rent lenses (or other photography gear) for infrequently encountered situations. Of course, you might find yourself using even seemingly specialized lenses more often if you own them and have them readily available.

 

Using Flash to Remove Glare from Reflective Surfaces

Often, evidence is stored in plastic bags or containers with shiny surfaces that result in reflective glare when photographed. This glare can obscure both the content and any markings on the bag or container.

As an example, a small piece of the bead toe from a tire was placed in a plastic bag, which was labeled with a black magic marker. (The writing on the bags in the images below has been intentionally altered to preserve anonymity.)

This first image was made in my Studio Lab using just the overhead LED lights. [Click on image to enlarge, then click on left arrow to return to this post.]

Plastic Evidence Bag without Flashes (Made with ZEISS Milvus 50 mm f/2 Macro lens on Nikon D850 at f/16, 1 sec, ISO 64.)

Even though the image is properly exposed, the overhead LED lights resulted in so much glare that it is difficult to make out the tiny tire piece inside or the writing on the outside of the bag.

To show both the contents and the writing, I kept the overhead LED lights on, but added a Profoto B1x studio flash on the right and on the left side of the bag. (Note: any remote flashes or speedlights can be used for the same effect.) [Click on image to enlarge, then click on left arrow to return to this post.]

Plastic Evidence Bag with Flashes (Made with ZEISS Milvus 50 mm f/2 Macro lens on Nikon D850 at f/16, 1/200 sec, ISO 64. One Profoto B1x strobe to each side triggered by a Godox TT685N II flash in the camera’s hot shoe.)

Wait, how did adding even more light eliminate the glare? Two things combined to make that work.

First, the added light from the flashes allowed me to significantly reduce the overall exposure. In this case, for both images I kept the aperture at f/16 for depth of field, and the ISO at 64 for lowest noise/highest dynamic range.

In the original image using the overhead LED lights only, the shutter speed was 1 second. When I added the flashes, I reduced the shutter speed down to 1/200 second. This faster shutter speed prevented the overhead LED lights—and their reflections—from recording at all. If I turned off the flashes, the image would have been black, even though the overhead LED lights were on.

Second, the light that reflected from each flash bounced away from its respective flash, and not into the camera lens. Hence, their reflections were not recorded by the camera.

Takeaways:

-1- To reduce or eliminate glare from overhead lights, reduce the exposure enough to cause the image to go black, or nearly so.

-2- Add one or more flashes positioned (usually to the sides) such that any reflections bounce away from the lens, not into it.

-3- Adjust the power of the flash(es) to properly light the subject at the new exposure.

-4- Note: With curved or irregularly shaped objects (like plastic bags), some localized reflections may remain. These may or may not be moved or eliminated by changing the positions of the camera or the flash(es).

SAE Accident Reconstruction Digital Summit Presentation Slides

Thanks to Matt Wasowski of SAE for putting together such an excellent digital accident reconstruction conference, and thanks, Matt, for allowing me to present. Thanks to all those who attended, too. Sorry about my abrupt exit; it was a technical glitch on my end.

As promised, here are the slides from my talk: Tom Vadnais Photography SAE Presentation_2022-03-30. Bonus: You’ll see there are some additional slides that I had to remove from the talk to get it to fit the alloted time. No additional charge for those extras! Ha, ha.

Please don’t hesitate to call or e-mail if you have any questions about what we covered or about my upcoming SAE class. I hope I get to meet you personally at my class July 12-14, 2022, at Mecanica Scientific Services in Oxnard, CA.

SAE Photography Class — July 12-14, 2022

With live classes now returning to SAE, I’m excited to announce that my next Photography for Accident Reconstruction, Product Liability, and Testing class will be July 12-14, 2022 at Mecanica Scientific Services’s fantastic classroom facilities in Oxnard, CA. Special thanks to Mecanica’s John Steiner for hosting this class for the third time!

Here’s a link for more information and to register: SAE Photography Class July 2022.

The class has ten major subject modules that build upon each other. We’ll explore in-depth about gear, light, camera fundamentals, settings, post-processing, and much, much more. You’ll come away not just knowing about, but actually understanding how to make better, more consistent, and more useful photographs during all your inspections and analyses, regardless of lighting conditions.

Please call or e-mail me directly if you have any questions or need more information.

I hope to see you there!

Measuring Truck Tire Inflation Pressures

It is essential to keep truck tires properly inflated so they can carry the load, wear evenly, maximize fuel mileage, and maintain their integrity. Chronic overdeflection (overinflation, underinflation, or a combination) is a common cause or contributor to tire failures.

During pre-trip inspections, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (49 CFR  §396.13) requires the driver “be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition.” This includes the truck’s tires . As part of that pre-trip tire inspection, a driver is trained to look for low or flat tires. But there is no requirement that the driver check the air pressure with a gauge. In fact, while going through truck driving school before getting my CDL, we never once used an air pressure gauge during our pre-trip inspection lessons, daily routines, or exams.

It would be an onerous task to require a driver to check the air pressure of all eighteen tires on a typical tractor trailer before every trip.  As an alternative to a gauge, some drivers use a “tire thumper” (usually a rubber mallet or some kind of a bat) to check their tires. If a tire is inflated, the thumper would bounce right off. Striking a tire with little or no air would have no bounce back, but would respond with a flat thud. While a thumper can’t determine if a tire is properly inflated, it can let you know if a tire is flat or near flat. [Click on image to enlarge, then click back arrow to return to this post.]

Only the bottom four of these will give you an accurate truck tire inflation pressure. (Made with ZEISS Milvus 50 mm f/2 Macro lens on Nikon D850 at f/16, 1/200 sec, ISO 64. Used one Profoto B1x studio strobe with silver umbrella with diffuser on each side.)

Back in 1998, I bought the Trucker’s Toothpick & Tire Tester at the top of the photo at a truck stop just for fun. (Both the name of the product and the company are rather whimsical.) It is a weighted metal stick with a hand grip on one end and a protective cover on the other. Along with various wooden bats, it is typical of tire thumpers sold commercially. While their benefits are minimal, at least thumpers prevent a driver from starting off on a trip with a flat tire.

The three stick gauges in the middle of the photo look similar, but their dual heads are at different angles. One of them is bound to fit when the metal valve stems of either the inner or outer tire of a dual pair are bent and otherwise inaccessible. They prevent you from bleeding air out of the tire as you try to get the gauge head to seat on the valve.

Stick gauges seem tricky to read until you understand how their scale works. I’ll describe that below.

The digital pressure gauge at the bottom is the easiest to read (and photograph, if you do that—I don’t).

Here’s how to read a truck tire stick gauge. Assume you’ve just checked the air pressure of a steer axle tire and got the reading below. [Click on image to enlarge, then click back arrow to return to this post.]

Scale on truck tire inflation pressure gauge. (Made with Nikon 105 mm Micro lens on Nikon D850 at f/16, 1/200 sec, ISO 64. Used one Profoto B1x studio strobe with silver umbrella with diffuser on each side.)

At first glance, the scale might not seem to make sense with the decimals between the longest hash marks. (Gauges typically start at 10 psi, not 0 psi; anything less than 10 psi is obviously flat.)

Zooming in might help make deciphering the scale more clear. (This photo has been rotated clockwise to be oriented as you would read the scale in use.) [Click on image to enlarge, then click back arrow to return to this post.]

Rotated close-up of scale on truck tire inflation pressure gauge.(Made with Nikon 105 mm Micro lens on Nikon D850 at f/16, 1/200 sec, ISO 64. Used one Profoto B1x studio strobe with silver umbrella with diffuser on each side.)

Let’s start with the 100 psi mark. (Note that on this gauge, the 100 psi hash mark happens to intersect the second zero.) The next short hash mark down represents 102 psi. One shorter hash mark down is 104 psi. Just below that, the longer hash mark near the center of the scale represents 105 psi. The next short hash mark at the right edge below that is 106 psi. Below that, the short hash mark is 108 psi. Next is the longer hash mark for 110 psi. Using this information, you can see the inflation pressure reading above was 118 psi.

To summarize, all the hash marks along the right edge of the scale are in 2 psi increments. Half way between the decimals, the longer hash marks near the center of the scale are in 5 psi increments.

Anywhere along the scale, anytime the end of the barrel is halfway between two consecutive short hash marks, the inflation pressure is 1 psi greater than the short hash mark above it.

Takeaways:

-1- While truck tires must be properly inflated, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations do not require truck drivers to check tire inflation pressures with a gauge during their pre-trip inspections.

-2- Tire thumpers can indicate if a tire is flat or almost flat, but cannot determine the inflation pressure.

-3- Different angles of dual head inflation pressure gauges can help access bent valve stems.

-4- If using a stick gauge, make sure you accurately read the scale.

New SAE Photography for Accident Reconstruction, Product Liability, and Testing Class Scheduled!

After having four of the five classes canceled last year, I’m really happy to announce the return of my SAE automotive and product photography class: https://www.sae.org/learn/content/c1729/. I’m glad to be returning to the site of my first class in 2018 at the great facilities of Mecanica Scientific Services in Oxnard, CA:  https://www.mecanicacorp.com/. Many thanks to John Steiner, CEO and Principal Scientist of Mecanica, for hosting this upcoming class from August 30 through September 1, 2021.

Important note: This class is an elective choice for the SAE Accident Reconstruction Certification (https://www.sae.org/learn/professional-development/certifications/accident-reconstruction-certificate/courses). It also qualifies for PE continuting educational requirements and ACTAR credits. Best of all, what you learn in this class can be applied immediately, and every single time you’re doing an inspection afterward.

Whether your primary job is accident reconstruction, product analysis, vehicle or component testing, or other technical area, you will need consistent, quality photographs to both document and analyze your subjects. These photos need to be made regardless of ambient lighting or conditions. Your camera on Auto isn’t going to do that. [Click on image to enlarge in new window, then click back arrow to return to post.]

Photo made by panning with vehicle moving at 55 mph during tire testing. (Made with Nikon 300 mm f/2.8 lens on Nikon D800E at f/6.3, 1/640 sec, ISO 400.)

Not only are good photos essential for documentation and useful for analysis, they can be critical for use in lawsuits, insurance claims, recalls, and design and testing evaluations. Both in-house analysts and independent consultants will be counted on to routinely produce accurate and reliable photographs as part of their professional work. Did I mention that your camera on Auto isn’t going to do that? [Click on image to enlarge in new window, then click back arrow to return to post.]

BMW in sun at tow yard. Fill flash and polarizer. (Nikon 24-70 mm f/2.8G lens on Nikon D810. Exposure: f/10, 1/60 sec, ISO 160.)

This class is designed to give you the tools and knowledge you’ll need to consistently create professional photographs by proper use of focus, depth of field, composition, lighting, polarizers, tripods, and close-up/macro tools. You’ll see how flash is essential for capturing all the data, and how it’s not as intimidating as many believe. We’ll also cover the two types of night photography as well. [Click on image to enlarge in new window, then click back arrow to return to post.]

Night photo of intersection with traffic light. (Made with ZEISS Milvus 50 mm f/2 macro lens on Nikon D850, at f/6.3, 1/60 second, ISO 1600.)

There will be more hands-on sessions than in previous classes, so make sure to bring your camera, lenses, polarizer, tripod, and flash. Course information and registration are available through the link in the first paragraph, but if you have any questions or need more information, please feel free to e-mail or call me directly.

Adding Flash to Show Depth

In an earlier post, I showed how shooting a sponge with a side flash gave depth to its surface that couldn’t be shown using a direct flash. I used a sponge since sponges are small, readily available, and easy to practice with anywhere. In this post, I’ll show how a side flash gives depth to an automotive subject—namely, a tire tread.

For this first image, I didn’t use any flash, but adjusted the camera for a proper exposure for the ambient light. It’s properly exposed, but the depth and extent of the cuts and chips out of the tread aren’t apparent. (Click on photo to enlarge, then click on back arrow to return to this post.)

Perpendicular to tread with no flash. (Made with ZEISS Milvus 50 mm f/2 Macro lens on Nikon D850 at f/16, 4.0 sec, ISO 100.)

This photo was made in my Studio Lab, which has so many LED shop lights overhead people say it looks like an operating room. Even though the room looks bright to our eyes, there is not as much ambient light for photography as you might think. In fact, to make the image above required a 4.0 second shutter speed, which obviously precluded handholding the camera. (I also increased the ISO 2/3 stop from 64 to 100.)

For the second shot, I added a Profoto B1x flash to each side, almost perpendicular to the camera, shooting across the tread. I triggered them with a Nikon SB-910 flash in the hotshoe that was pointed straight up at a very low power so it would not contribute to the exposure. (Click on photo to enlarge, then click on back arrow to return to this post.)

Perpendicular to tread with one flash to each side. (Made with ZEISS Milvus 50 mm f/2 Macro lens on Nikon D850 at f/16, 1/200 sec, ISO 64. One Profoto B1x strobe to each side triggered by a Nikon SB-910 flash in the camera’s hot shoe.)

Side flash enhances texture by creating shadows. Diffused ambient light and direct flash lighting both evenly light your subject, which fills in the shadows, which, in turn, reduces the appearance of any textures.

[Technical aside #1: With cross-light from the added side flashes, the shutter speed was 9 2/3 stops faster at 1/200 second and the ISO was 2/3 stop less at 64, for a total of 10 1/3 stops less light than the first shot. If the flashes were turned off for the second photo, that exposure would have resulted in a pure black image. The flashes were adjusted to give the proper amount of light for the exposure. This is called a full flash image, where all of the light is provided by flash. This differs from a fill flash image where the light from any flash enhances the ambient exposure, but flash isn’t the only light source. More on this later.]

[Technical aside #2: For an equivalent ambient light image, instead of a 4.0 second shutter speed and ISO 100, you could use 1/60 second shutter speed and ISO 256,000. The 1/60 second shutter speed may allow you to handhold the camera, but ISO 256,000 is guaranteed to be extremely noisy and noticeably lacking in dynamic range. Not a good alternative at all.]

Four major takeaways:

-1- As with the earlier sponge example, flash light coming from the side brings out texture by creating shadows.

-2- Both diffused ambient light and direct flash lighting flood every surface with the same light, obscuring texture and depth differences.

-3- Indoor ambient light may look bright to our eyes, but it will require very long exposures or an extremely high (and noisy) ISO to make the photograph.

-4- You must adjust your exposure accordingly when going between ambient  light and full flash lighted images.

Photographing Under Flaps or Broken Pieces

Often, you’ll find you need to photograph underneath a small flap, tear, or partially broken piece. It’s quite difficult to hold the piece steady, align the lights, keep the piece perpendicular to the camera, frame the image, focus, and hold the camera steady simultaneously. Unless you have unusually long arms, many times it will be impossible to even look through the viewfinder or at the rear LCD while holding both the camera and piece, much less holding them both still and properly aligned.

You’ll want to frame your subject without cutting off important parts of it, showing lots of excess space to any side, or ending up with strange subject angles. Particularly with close-up and macro images, you’ll also want to maximize the depth of field by keeping your camera sensor perpendicular to the piece. 

The only reliable and repeatable way to ensure you can get the camera where you need it—while keeping everything aligned and stationary—is to hold the piece with a clamp and support your camera with a tripod, studio stand, or even a beanbag. When both the camera and the subject are held still, you can frame the subject through the viewfinder or with the LCD, adjust the lights, and take test shots until you get your lighting just where you need it. (Click on the image to enlarge it, then click the back arrow to return to this post.)

Setup for photos of sidewall flap. (Made using Nikon D850 with 55 mm ZEISS Otus lens. Lighting: Two Profoto B1x studio strobes. Exposure: f/16, 1/200 sec, ISO 64.)

For the torn sidewall rubber of the tire above, I used a Wimberley The Plamp II with its base clamped on the tire bead and its smaller subject clamp on the rubber flap. This securely held the flap in place so I could compose the shot and ensure the camera sensor was perpendicular to the underside surface of the flap. In my Studio Lab, I use a Foba camera stand to both place and support the camera precisely where I need it. In the field, I would use a tripod.

I held the off-camera flash in my left had so I could aim it where I wanted it, and tripped the camera’s shutter with a remote shutter cord in my right hand. (A self-timer could work, too.)

This resulting image below was an overall view of the flap and tire carcass ply surfaces that had pulled apart. It was made with a ZEISS Milvus 50 mm macro lens.  (Click on the image to enlarge it, then click the back arrow to return to this post.)

Sidewall flap. (Made using Nikon D850 with 50 mm ZEISS Milvus macro lens. Nikon R1C1 flashes with Nikon SB-910 to left side. Exposure: f/16, 1/200 sec, ISO 64.)

For overall lighting, I used two Nikon SB-R200 macro flashes on the R1C1 ring around the lens with one below and one to the right of the lens. To show the texture on the sidewall rubber and the polyester carcass cords, I used a Nikon SB-910 flash off camera to the left. (All the remote flashes were controlled via infrared from a Nikon SB-910 flash on camera in master mode.)

In the closer image below, I repeated the process using a ZEISS Milvus 100 mm macro lens to fill the frame with the torn surface textures. For a good composition, I had to reposition the camera, which was straightforward with the Foba camera stand. (Click on the image to enlarge it, then click the back arrow to return to this post.)

Sidewall flap. (Made using Nikon D850 with 100 mm ZEISS Milvus macro lens. Nikon R1C1 flashes with Nikon SB-910 to left side. Exposure: f/16, 1/200 sec, ISO 64.)

Main takeaways:

-1- Flaps and pieces should be held steady with some sort of clamp. It’s almost impossible to hold them in place by hand.

-2- Securely support the camera in position for the best composition and maximum depth of field using a tripod, studio stand, or even a beanbag.

-3- Align camera so its sensor is perpendicular to your subject to maximize depth of field.

-4- Use sidelighting in addition to overall lighting to show texture (or lack of texture).

Vadnais Engineering Studio Lab

To facilitate my tire, wheel, and product analysis and photography, I set up my Studio Lab in my basement. Although it continues to evolve, it had fortuitously been set up and in use for nine years before the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 brought most travel and meetings to a halt. In fact, even before the pandemic, I have preferred having tires, wheels, and other products shipped to me for analysis and/or photography in my Studio Lab rather than traveling to where they might be stored.

In my Studio Lab, I have all the inspection and photography equipment I need to do a complete analysis and documentation, regardless of what I encounter. Besides, I can leave any setup in place for several days if needed. (Click on an image to enlarge it. Then click back arrow to return to this post.)

Tire analysis setup includes camera with flash on studio stand, two studio strobes into silver umbrellas, silver reflector, and gray background paper with tire on lazy susan. (Made with ZEISS Milvus 25 mm f/1.4 lens on Nikon D850 with SB-910 flash firing the two studio strobes, f/16, 0.5 sec, ISO 64.)

Although it is partly obscured by the support pole in the photograph above, I mount a camera on one end of the sliding arm of a Foba rolling studio stand. One of my favorite pieces of gear, a studio stand is much faster to adjust and move than a tripod. The arm rotates around, slides back and forth on, and moves up and down on a solid pole mounted to a base with three lockable wheels. These adjustments allow a camera to be brought and held in the exact position needed—both rapidly and securely.

I then mount as many lights as required on rolling light stands, floor stands, C-stands, or clamps. Having the camera and lights on rolling stands makes it quick and easy to change their positions. My large collection of reflectors and reference scales can be held in position with a variety of clamps, as needed.

I also use one of three wooden or four plastic lazy susans, depending on the size of the tire, wheel, or product. I cover the lazy susans with gray paper or cloth, and use a neutral gray background paper from a large ceiling-mounted roll.

Because tires and wheels are usually neutral in color—shades of black, gray, silver, or white—the neutral gray background neither clashes nor contaminates the subjects. With other products, I may use gray, black, or white backgrounds.

I’ve installed so many LED shop lights overhead that a couple visitors have described the area as bright as an operating room. Even with this much light, I still use a number of LED drop lights during inspections, and to assist with composition and focusing while photographing. (Click on an image to enlarge it. Then click back arrow to return to this post.)

Tire analysis setup includes camera with flash on studio stand, two studio strobes into silver umbrellas, silver reflector, and gray background paper with tire on largest lazy susan. (Made with ZEISS Milvus 25 mm f/1.4 lens on Nikon D850 with SB-910 flash, f/16, 0.6 sec, ISO 160.)

I will describe lighting for specific items in future posts, but for tires, I generally use two Profoto B1x 500 W/s studio strobes firing into Profoto Medium Deep Silver umbrellas—both mounted on rolling light stands. A Nikon SB-910 flash affixed to the hot shoe a Nikon D850 DSLR  camera triggers both studio strobes, and adds its light on the subject, too. A silver Profoto reflector bounces light onto the tread or belt surface.

If you’re wondering, I use the purple trekking pole to rotate a tire while I’m sitting on the Wen mechanic’s rolling seat behind the camera. Using that pole allows me to look at the image through the grid in Live View on the camera’s LCD while I precisely line up the position stickers on the tire with the gridlines.

The cable hanging from the camera is the remote shutter release. With this, I can trip the shutter without touching the camera to insure there is no motion blur in the photo.

I will share more of the techniques and gear I use in future posts.

Lighting Equipment Used for the Previous Low Light Blog Post

In the last post, I showed some lighting solutions to use when your subject is in low light. In this post, I will briefly describe some of the supports and the lights I referred to. Flash is a big and interesting subject, and I have an entire module on flash photography in the photography class I teach for SAE (SAE C1729). Or, I should say, will resume teaching once this pandemic eases.

I will expand on each of these in future posts, but wanted to give the basics here. First and foremost is using a good tripod. There is nothing better you can do to improve your photographs than to use a tripod. I use a tripod in any kind of light for almost every image of any subject, including accident sites, vehicles, tires, and other products. A good tripod is even more essential when the light levels are low.

It used to be unusual to see someone with a tripod at an inspection. But with so many scanners now being used, tripods have become quite common. So there goes one excuse for not carrying and using one!

I have a post all about tripods in the works, but for now I’ll just mention the Really Right Stuff (RRS) TVC-24L with a RRS BH-40 ball head that I use for all inspections out of my Studio Lab. It is compact and lightweight, yet it extends quite high, which is essential. All of my tripods have LensCoat LegWraps for insulation (from both hot sun and freezing temperatures) and for comfort in carrying. (Click on image to enlarge, then click on back arrow to return to this post.)

Really Right Stuff (RRS) TVC-24L tripod with RRS BH-40 ball head. (Made using Nikon D850 with ZEISS Milvus 50 mm macro lens. Lit with two Profoto B1x strobes firing into silver umbrellas.)

While future posts (and classes) will discuss flash techniques in detail, in this post I will focus on the equipment I used in the previous post.

Flashes that fit in your camera’s hot shoe are generically called speedlights or flashes. In fact, Nikon calls their flashes Speedlights while Canon calls theirs Speedlites. Larger studio-type flashes are referred to as strobes. Here are some examples from the front. All are battery powered. (Click on image to enlarge, then click on back arrow to return to this post.)

(L to R) Profoto B1x, Canon 430EX III-RT, Nikon SB-910, and Profoto B10. (Made using Nikon D850 with ZEISS Milvus 50 mm macro lens.)

And here they are from the rear. Note that the speedlight flashes can be mounted in a camera hot shoe or on a light stand. (Click on image to enlarge, then click on back arrow to return to this post.)

(L to R) Profoto B1x, Canon 430EX III-RT, Nikon SB-910, and Profoto B10. (Made using Nikon D850 with ZEISS Milvus 50 mm macro lens.)

In the photograph of the lighting setup in the previous post, there was a Nikon SB-910 Speedlight in the camera hot shoe and two Profoto B10 strobes on Manfrotto 5002-M travel light stands. These stands are lightweight and fold up small, yet are quite sturdy. (Click on image to enlarge, then click on back arrow to return to this post.)

Manfrotto travel light stands 5002-M (top) and 5001 (bottom). (Made using Nikon D850 with ZEISS Milvus 50 mm macro lens. Lit by two Profoto B1x strobes firing into silver umbrellas with diffusers.)

This final image shows a Profoto B10 mounted on a Manfrotto 5001, which is slightly smaller and slightly less sturdy (though still sufficient) than a 5002-M. (Click on image to enlarge, then click on back arrow to return to this post.)

Profoto B10 on Manfrotto 5001 travel light stand. (Made using Nikon D850 with ZEISS Milvus 50 mm macro lens. Lit with two Profoto B1x strobes firing into silver umbrellas.)

In the previous post, the two B10’s were fired through their infrared slave sensors when they sensed light from the on-camera Nikon flash. All three flashes and the camera’s exposure settings were all manually set.

Why use strobes when you can use speedlights? Power is the answer. Mid-to-high end speedlights typically have power outputs between 60 and 150 Watt-seconds (Ws), while the Profoto B10 and B1x are 250 and 500 Ws, respectively. This means you’d need two-to-eight speedlights to equal one Profoto strobe. For example, you’d need sixteen 60 Ws mid-range flashes to equal the power output of the two 500 Ws strobes I use for tire photos in my Studio Lab. Not only would those be unwieldy to set up, but think of how many AA batteries you’d need!

Why is flash power important? Every one stop increase in exposure requires doubling of the light power. For forensic or testing photographs, you want to minimize noise by using the lowest ISO you can, and you want a deep depth of field by using a smaller (higher number) aperture. Both a lower ISO and a smaller aperture result in less light reaching the sensor. Consequently, the flash has to be powerful enough to ensure a proper exposure without raising ISO or opening up your aperture.

Future posts will go deeper into exposure both with and without flash. We will be using this equipment throughout.